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Biology Homework Assignment Help on CVD

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) generally refers to any disease that affects the heart (cardio) and the entire circulatory system/ blood vessels (Vascular). At the dawn of the 20th century CVD was only responsible for about 10% of deaths globally, but by 2001 the figure had risen to 30%. According to research, about 1 million US citizens die every year from CVD and resulting complications, this translates to 42% of all deaths that is, it accounts for more deaths than cancer. Murray envisaged that CVD will be the global principal cause of death by the year 2020. Histological studies reveal that vascular damages appear early in life requiring primary prevention efforts essential from infancy. It has been emphasized that preventive factors, such as healthy eating and exercise should be modified. CVD can manifest itself as either chronic or acute; meaning, CVD can be an indicator of a persistent ailment (chronic) or can be a sudden occurrence (acute) like a heart attack, stroke, or obstruction of blood provision to the brain. 


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Epidemiological studies have reported obesity as an important determinant of CVD, especially among the youths. About 129 million Americans (65%) are classified as overweight. Obesity is pathogenetically interconnected to a number of clinical and sub-clinical anomalies that aid in the progression of atherosclerotic placks and their resultant effects, leading to the inception of cardiovascular complications. Obesity appears to be connected with some hereditable traits. Such traits establish the onset of insulin resistance, a metabolic condition responsible for abnormal glucose metabolism hence a predisposition to diabetes mellitus (type II diabetes). Obesity also plays a major role in the development of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and many other sub-clinical anomalies that aid in the atherosclerotic process and consequently, the onset of cardiovascular complications.

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Types of CVD

Cardiovascular diseases affecting the heart include Rheumatic heart disease, syncope, and heart attack. Those affecting blood vessels include; an aortic aneurysm, high blood pressure, and stroke.

Economic Analyses

A study conducted by Wang et al (2006), concluded that, incidence of CVD among people within the normal body weight bracket (Body mass index (BMI) ?18.5 to a different study of the UK, on the direct health costs spent on intervention, rehabilitation, drug treatment, and emergency care was conducted by Liu et al (2002). Direct non-health costs were estimated from data on informal care. From their study, they deduced that the UK healthcare system spent over £1.7 billion in treatment, prevention, and intervention of coronary heart disease in 1999. An estimated £ 2.42 billion was spent in the informal care and £ 2.91 billion overstatements of production loss occurred during the period of employees absence, before they were replaced (friction period). Mortality accounted for 24.1% of production losses while morbidity accounted for &5.9%. The yearly cost burden was estimated to be £7.06 billion, meaning that it took the biggest portion of the national health budget.

Economic Burden

Hypothetically, the economic costs of cardiovascular diseases are widespread and always on the rise. They are costs burdens to the family, to the government, and to the economy for time lost off work. In 2005, the cost of cardiovascular diseases in the European Union was estimated to be about? 169 billion per year. The consequences were felt both as a loss of income and production of the affected and the medical personnel as well as a strain on the countries' health organization.  Researchers have found out that in developing and undeveloped countries, CVD are increasingly affecting working and lower socio-economic groups. It is feared that if the epidemic of CVD continues, it will adversely affect the viability of some countries' economies. In South Africa, 25% of the healthcare budget is spent on cardiovascular diseases while in China, 4% of their gross national income (€30.76 billion) is spent on direct costs related to cardiovascular disease management. A report by J Mackay elucidates that, the next decade will see Africa’s CVD economic burden rise to billions of dollars. Hypertension is the most significant contributor to the burden, including the cost of stroke care, congestive heart failure, and ischaemic heart disease.


Majority of studies that have tried to capture the economic cost of obesity-related CVD make use of cost of illness. The results are presented in monetary terms as of costs attributable to the illness. Even with the upheaval involved in making a cross-country comparison, recent studies have concurred on the fact that, healthcare burden on obesity-related CVD is heaviest in the US and constitutes about 7% of the national budget. A slight, but very vital observation is that costs incurred do not arise from the ailment itself, but from the allocation of resources aimed at assuaging and controlling it. Another aspect of concern is that most of the studies aim at assessing the financial burden of the ailment on the economy or the affected people. Most studies aimed at determining the cost of illness argue that they approximate the relative need. Conversely, singling out that high needs do not warrant higher resources allocations. Instead of putting a monetary value on the burden, concerns should be on what should be done about the burden and what monetary values could be put on the benefits of such interventions.   In addition, the methods do not examine the relationship between the costs and the benefits involved, plus how does the society as a whole gain from the measures taken. A further criticism is on the extreme dependency on data from income earners, excluding those who do not earn or the low-income earners.

Effects on Strategic Planning

Patton-fuller community hospital, which is a non-profit making health organization has aimed at offering superior award-winning health services for its patients and providing early interventions and preventive care. Like any other voluntary health charity, Patton-Fuller plays a vital role in initializing an important research capacity and in supporting key novelties by raising money from well-wishers and then allotting it to these researches. The rising incidence of the disease and the projected costly preventive and curative measures creates an increased demand as well as unexpected pressure on a technologically dependent health care system. The impact of CVD could also dampen the willingness of donors, which could constrain the hospitals' budget. Equivalence in financial analyses would be vital to avoid ambiguity and warrant reproducibility of the result.