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Economic Burden of Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) generally refers to any disease that affects the heart (cardio) and the entire circulatory system/ blood vessels (Vascular). At the dawn of the 20th century, CVD was only responsible for about 10% of deaths globally, but by 2001 the figure had risen to 30%. According to research, about 1 million US citizens die every year from CVD and resulting complications, this translates to 42% of all deaths that is, it accounts for more deaths than cancer. Murray envisaged that CVD will be the global principal cause of death by the year 2020. Histological studies reveal that vascular damages appear early in life requiring primary prevention efforts essential from infancy. It has been emphasized that preventive factors, such as healthy eating and exercise should be modified. CVD can manifest itself as either chronic or acute; meaning, CVD can be an indicator of a persistent ailment (chronic) or can be a sudden occurrence (acute) like a heart attack, stroke, or obstruction of blood provision to the brain. Hypothetically, the economic costs of cardiovascular diseases are widespread and always on the rise. They are costs burdens to the family, to the government, and to the economy for time lost off work. In 2005, the cost of cardiovascular diseases in the European Union was estimated to be about? 169 billion per year. The consequences were felt both as a loss of income and production of the affected and the medical personnel as well as a strain on the countries' health organization.  Researchers have found out that in developing and undeveloped countries, CVD are increasingly affecting working and lower socio-economic groups. It is feared that if the epidemic of CVD continues, it will adversely affect the viability of some countries' economies. In South Africa, 25% of the healthcare budget is spent on cardiovascular diseases while in China, 4% of their gross national income (€30.76 billion) is spent on direct costs related to cardiovascular disease management. A report by J Mackay elucidates that, the next decade will see Africa’s CVD economic burden rise to billions of dollars. Hypertension is the most significant contributor to the burden, including the cost of stroke care, congestive heart failure, and ischaemic heart disease. Instead of putting a monetary value on the burden, concerns should be on what should be done about the burden and what monetary values could be put on the benefits of such interventions. In addition, the methods do not examine the relationship between the costs and the benefits involved, plus how does the society as a whole gain from the measures taken. A further criticism is on the extreme dependency on data from income earners, excluding those who do not earn or the low-income earners.

Unmatched Biology Assignment Writing Services

Custom Biology assignment writing services, At Custom Writing Bay, all our biology assignment writing services are offered by professionals who are specialized in offering legit biology research assignment writing services We have a resourceful online client support team that ensures that all our services are available on a 24/7 basis.  Our writers have access to a wide range of resources where they thoroughly research our clients' biology assignments. Patton-fuller community hospital, which is a non-profit making health organization has aimed at offering superior award-winning health services for its patients and providing early interventions and preventive care. Like any other voluntary health charity, Patton-Fuller plays a vital role in initializing an important research capacity and in supporting key novelties by raising money from well-wishers and then allotting it to these researches. The rising incidence of the disease and the projected costly preventive and curative measures creates an increased demand as well as unexpected pressure on a technologically dependent health care system. The impact of CVD could also dampen the willingness of donors, which could constrain the hospitals' budget. Equivalence in financial analyses would be vital to avoid ambiguity and warrant reproducibility of the result. Most studies aimed at determining the cost of illness argue that they approximate the relative need. Conversely, singling out that high needs do not warrant higher resources allocations.